Energy is an important material foundation necessary for the development of the national economy and people’s lives, and it is also a driving force for promoting social and economic development and improving people’s living standards. The application of various new energy sources such as nuclear energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, wind energy, solar energy, etc., from the primitive society’s drilling for fire, to modern fossil energy, all flashes the light of human wisdom. The transformation of energy is often driven by the needs of social production and development, and the revolution in energy production and consumption in turn promotes a leap in social productivity. With the all-round development of global industrialization, the demand for energy in various countries and industries has rapidly expanded, and the quality and quantity of energy demand have become the standard for measuring the economic development of a country or region.
However, with the increasing demand for energy by mankind, the reserves of fossil energy are depleting day by day. A recent report issued by the Swiss Bank pointed out that the world has proven oil reserves of 1.8 trillion barrels. According to the current oil consumption level, the world’s oil can still be exploited for 46 years. After half a century, the earth’s oil and natural gas will be exhausted. After 200 years, there will be no coal to be mined. In China, this situation is not optimistic. According to statistics, oil consumption in 2014 reached 519 million tons, of which 308 million tons of crude oil was imported, and the degree of foreign dependence reached 60%. Experts predict that by 2020, China’s oil consumption will exceed 700 million tons, and more than 69% will rely on imports. my country’s coal consumption fell in 2014 for the first time in this century, a decline of about 2.8%, but consumption still reached 3.51 billion tons, exceeding 50% of the total global consumption. According to relevant research forecasts by the China Energy Research Association and other industry organizations, the peak of China’s coal consumption will come around 2020, the demand for natural gas will reach 400 billion cubic meters, and the world demand will reach 4 trillion cubic meters. . The mining, transportation and use of fossil energy will cause serious pollution to the air and human living environment. At the same time, large-scale greenhouse gas emissions make the earth’s surface temperature rise year by year. If the world does not control CO2 emissions, the greenhouse effect will melt the icebergs in the north and south poles, which may raise the sea level by a few meters, and a quarter of human living space will be greatly threatened.
In response to the above situation, the development and utilization of renewable energy and various green energy sources to achieve sustainable development has become a measure that human society must take. Environmental protection has already been mentioned in the agenda of the United Nations and governments at all levels, and it is stipulated that June 5 of each year shall be World Environmental Protection Day, “there is only one earth in the world”, “the earth is our common home” and “make the earth full of vitality” “Slogans such as environmental protection fully reflect the common aspirations of all mankind.
Renewable energy mainly includes water energy, solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, biomass energy and other energy forms. Their biggest feature is their self-recovery ability. In the process of people’s use, renewable energy sources can be continuously replenished from nature. They are inexhaustible energy sources that cannot be consumed. Hydropower is currently the most widely used renewable energy concept, but it is affected by geography. Conditions, weather and climate have a great influence, and the scope of utilization is limited.
According to the renewable energy development goals of countries around the world and the current actual progress, experts predict that by 2050, the proportion of renewable energy in the total primary energy is about 54%, and the proportion of solar energy in the secondary energy is about 13%. %~15%. By 2100, renewable energy sources will account for 86%, solar energy will account for 67%, and solar power will account for 64%.
After research and demonstration by scholars, people believe that solar and wind energy are the most effective and feasible energy types to solve energy low-efficiency and environmental pollution, and they are the most important types of energy in the new century. Especially the application of solar energy and photovoltaic power generation, it has attracted more and more attention with its unique advantages:
① Solar energy is inexhaustible and inexhaustible, enough to supply the earth for billions of years:
②The application area of solar energy is vast, and the utilization value of rural areas, islands and remote areas is higher:
③The solar energy is clean, and there is no pollution in the development and utilization process;
④The survey and design of solar photovoltaic power plants are simple, and the construction and installation period is short:
⑤Solar photovoltaic power generation has no moving parts, no noise, not easy to damage, and simple maintenance.